.

.

 
 
 

. 1.

 

          "", ""      "".             . ,               .     , - , "" . , , . ,       , ?
.             : , .   ,       -   ,    (        )         . ,                  .   ,
-.
,     .        ""          , ; . ,       , - -  .

 


,
1952 , . 1952 . 28 1964 , " IV", . 15 1965 " IV" 6000 , , . , , . , , . , . , , , , , , , , . , , 1952 . , , , , "" 1952 , .


1970.

 

 

1954 , . 1954 . 50- , , , , . 27 1962 "-2" 21 14 1962 . , , . , , , - . , . , , . 1954
. 1964 , , , 243 ( 18 ) "" .

, , , , "" 1954 , .

1970

 

, , 1942 , ,  , , , ,   650. 000 (). , , , , , () 1. 450. 000 .
, 1957 1982 , . , . , , ,   . , 1982   . , . , .
  , , () . , , , , - . , Doubleday, , , , , .
, ( )  :
 

1. (1982). , 1940 1976 . . (1950). , .   , Doubleday.
2. (1954). .
3. (1957). .
4. (1983). .
5. (1985). .
6. , (1951). .
7. (1952). .
8. (1950). .
9. (1988). ( , ().
10. (1951). . , 1942 1944 . .,   , 1949 .
11. , (1952). , , 1945 .
12. (1952). , , 1948 1949 . .
13. (1953). . 14. (1983). .

? . . , , (5) (6); (9) (10); , . , (14), , . , - ,  ,  .

 

 

  CTOP "OCHOBAH"
  1 ayca 1941 oa, oa e coc aa o o, aaa xa Koycoo yepcea ye p oa poeccoao ca ayy aacy. opoc cpec c oo Keo, peaopo As tounding, oopoy k oy pee ye poa paccao. ce paccaa ey o oo ee, oopa y e oac.
  Oa cocoa o, o aca cop yyeo; paccaa o ae aaeco ep. Mo ya oo oaac acoo axaa, o Ke pe aoe e oyee, a . O ye e coaac, o aca oo o pacca. O xoe ey cep, koopo poceaac c cee cop ecopo poeye ey aee epo aaeco ep oeo Bopo. Bce o oo oceeo c o ay cxocop, oopy c Keo coeco pya.
  ep pacca oc aco, 1942 ., Astounding, a opa co, 1942 oa yce. O cpay e ca oyp Ke o, o o oa ece ay ee ec paccao. pacca, poe, caoc ce ee. B epo o oo aa c co. a ocex pex ye o o ec c co a.
  K oy pee ecee ooc, ce oe ycaa o o cep, apoc ee epee py ea. Oao a pa oa pae aeca aa ycka ayo-aacecke kk epx ooax. O ax aecx oo a eoa pa, Gnome Press, oopa oyoaa o cep Ocoae pex oax: Ocoae(1951); Ocoae ep(1952) Bopoe Ocoae(1953). O oy ecoc a Tpo o Ocoa.
  K pacxoc e ocoeo xopoo, ocoy y Gnome Press e o ee, o peapoa poa x a pe. e oy cooe o x yce, oopapa.
  B aae 1961 o oa peaop Doubleday, To Ceec, caa e, o oy pocy o ocpaoo ae oo ey epea o Ocoa. ocoy paa a x e paea Doubleday, o epea y pocy e. oa ea.
   o e epeco, T. ae e oy oopapa a .
  Ceec yacyc, o e ac pcy opae pa a y o Gnome Press (oopa a oy pee ye ypae po) ayce oo e oa (ece c , poo) ca coceoc Doubleday.
  Haa c oo oea oypoc cep Ocoae oa epx oa aaa poc ce oee yeaec oopap. Doubleday aa po oo o pacocpaa epe y ee aac.
B 1966, a Bcepo Koe, poxoe Kee, oocoa o aeop ya Cep Bcex Bpee. Toa, ep oce pa, a aeop a ea oaoe cc pe Xo. Tpo o Ocoa a ee yocoea.
   ce acoee poc e poo cep. eo oaac. Ho ce e e oapoao o, o , ee e poec a ce, oa a cep aaac, yec e.
  Doubleday, oao, ocpa ce peoa opao cepee, e . O oopcoa e aa e, o ocoy peoa caoc ce acoe oocee, x epee oyo. B 1981 o caa, o poco oa aca ee oy oec o Ocoa, , o ocac , peo e opa c aaco, ec pa pea o.
  Hepa, coacc. poo pa a oa c ex op, a aca oce pacca o Ocoa, a eep e opoc co o-y o a 140000 co, a paa oe oo oee pax oo o p paa oex paccao o cep. epea po opyc paoy. Kpa Ocoa a ope 1982 a ae cyac oe cpaa e: a cpay e oac cce ecceepo H-opco Times. Oa ocaaac a aa ee, oey oeey ye.
  Doubleday o ac e aaaa e ooee e aca e, cae ac pyo cep The Robot Novel's. A ae po pe epyc Ocoa.
  a, aca Ocoae e, oopa aaec o ca oe, oa oaec Kpa Ocoa. Ec ae Kpa Ocoa, poco o oce ay a, o oe oo, o o e oaeo. Ocoae e caocoeoe poeee. Haec, oo a opac.
  Ae Ao
  H-op C, 1986.
 
 
 
X